Abstract is – Definition, Characteristics, Objectives, Methods, Examples
Abstract is – Definition, Characteristics, Objectives, Methods, Examples

Abstract is – Definition, Characteristics, Objectives, Methods, Examples

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The summary is – Definition, Characteristics, Purpose, Benefits, How to Make and Examples – For this discussion, we will review about Summary Which in this case includes definition, characteristics, purposes, benefits, how to make and examples, now for a better understanding and understanding see full review below.

summary is

understanding summary

An abstract is a presentation of events or long events that is presented succinctly. Or also, a good way to crop or cut is to present the results of a long essay and present it in a short and concise form. Abstract differs from description, although it is often given for the two terms, but in fact the two terms differ.


The abstract is the result of the original article but in its submission it must preserve the original order and wording of the author. The summary is the opposite, and the description of the arrangement does not need and does not need to be systematic or does not correspond to the original arrangement and does not need to be proportional or does not require the content of all the results of the essay.

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Features summary

Here are some of the features of the summary, consisting of:

  1. Uncover an article or read a text in solid form. In summarizing, we take the gist or main ideas of the reading so that it becomes a more compact form.
  2. Reproduction of what the author expressed in his writings. We take the gist that is then rewritten in our own language what the author expresses.
  3. Keep the main ideas in order until a summary of the original text is built. In summarizing, we must continue to follow the main ideas so that the summary we provide remains the original reading text.
  4. The abstract, viewpoint, and content follow the original manuscript. Even if we rewrite it, we must not depart from the composition of the original manuscript.
  5. Write short sentences representing the author’s writing. In principle, summarizing means making writing shorter. Therefore, the sentences in the abstract are short and concise but do not remove the aesthetic elements of the original manuscript.

The purpose of the summary

A summary is made to shorten a long article. The person who will give the summary should sort out the main ideas and additional ideas. Because the purpose of the summary is to understand and learn the contents of the book, exercises are necessary to guide someone to be able to read an article quickly. So one of the purposes of making an abstract is to help someone read a book in a short time and save time.


An abstract writer will not make a good summary if he or she is not diligent in reading and cannot distinguish between main ideas and additional ideas. Being able to distinguish between levels of ideas will help him hone his stylistic skills, and avoid using long descriptions that might be included in the article.

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Benefits summary

As a way to help us remember the contents of a book or description that is too long. The summary contains the main ideas that represent each part of the original reading. By reading the summary, we seem to understand the entire book.


How to make a summary

Those who are familiar with summarizing usually know how to write a good summary. But in addition to this, it is necessary to provide some criteria as a guide, especially for those who have never done this or are just starting out. Once you get used to it, some of these criteria probably won’t be needed anymore.


Some of the handles used to make a good, valid summary include:


  1. Read the original text

The first step to be taken is that the writer of the abstract should read the original manuscript once or twice, and it may even be repeated many times so that the overall overall impression of the manuscript’s contents is known. The author also needs to know the author’s intent and point of view. In order to help the writer achieve everything, the title and table of contents can be used as references in the article.


The details of the table of contents are closely related to the title of the article. Also, article paragraphs support the points in the table of contents. Therefore, the writer should understand well the table of contents of the article so that it is easier to get an overall impression, the original intention of the author and the author’s point of view given in the article.


  1. Record the main idea

If the writer knows the general impression, the original intent and the author’s point of view, then he must now deepen and affirm all these things. The next thing to do is to re-understand the essay part, paragraph by paragraph while noting the important ideas included in the passage or paragraph.


The purpose of recording is twofold, the first is for observational purposes to facilitate the writer to re-examine whether the points recorded are important or not; Secondly, the log becomes the basis for further processing. More importantly, the purpose of this note is that, without linking the original text, the author begins to rewrite to compile a summary using the points made.


Similar to the first step, which uses the title and table of contents as a guide, in recording this idea, the titles of chapters, sub-chapters, and paragraphs should be recorded as objectives, the main idea. Since it is just an illustration or description to explain the main idea in the first paragraph, it should be noted that there are paragraphs that may or may not be omitted.

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All this happened because there was a paragraph whose position was more important than the one that preceded it. In this case, the main idea taken from the series of paragraphs is in the main paragraph, while other additional paragraphs can be ignored or combined into one sentence.


  1. reproduction contract

Using the general impression in step one above and the notes obtained from step two above, the writer is ready to begin making the intended summary. In the abstract, the order of the contents is modified according to the order of the original manuscript and must use the language of the author of the article and must be sorted.


By copying, the author does not necessarily have to do everything in the best possible way. There are several things to consider in order for the summary to be well written, including:

  • It is better to use a summary in one sentence rather than a compound sentence. Compound sentences show that two or more ideas are parallel. If there is a compound sentence, check again whether it is impossible to form one sentence.
  • Summarize sentences into phrases and phrases into words. Likewise, if a long series of ideas should be replaced by only one central idea. This does not mean that the summary is just a summary of the sentences.
  • The size of the summary depends on the number of main paragraphs and topics to be included in the abstract. Paragraphs containing illustrations, examples, descriptions, etc., can be omitted, except for those considered important. All these paragraphs that will be kept because they are considered important, should also be shortened or generalized.
  • If possible, remove all existing adverbs or adjectives, although sometimes the adjective or adverb is retained to explain the general idea embedded in the adverb or the adjective sequence in the text.
  • Keep all original ideas and text order. But what was noted from the original article should be paraphrased into a brief sentence written by the author. Also, be careful not to include anything new or the author’s ideas in the abstract.

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Example summary

Berau Bara Abadi is a coal mining company located in Gunung Sari Village, Segah District, Berau Regency, East Kalimantan Province. When planning coal deposit mining, it is necessary to analyze slope stability. This is because mining activities, such as excavation of a rock mass, will cause a change in the stress distribution on the slope which will disrupt the stability of the slope and eventually can cause creep and even landslides.


Therefore, PT. Berau Bara Abadi has conducted geotechnical investigations in four wells, namely GT 01, GT 02, GT 03 and GT 04. From each drilling hole, several rock samples will be taken which will be tested for the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks in the laboratory. From the results of these laboratory tests, the characteristics of the rock mass are obtained which will then be used as inputs in the design of the slope. For the difference of slope forming material, it follows petrology.


The method used for slope stability analysis is the finite element method using the finite element method. result force reduction factor (SRFRecommended minimum total slope SRF >1,20.


The approach used in analyzing the probability of landslides that will occur in the study area by making use of the strain lines from the results of the analysis in a finite element method, in addition to their impact on the compressive strength of the rocks. according to BieniawskiAnd the (1973), soil is a naturally formed material that has a compressive strength of less than 1 MPa, and according to johnston, (1991) Soft rock is a material that has a compressive strength of 0.25 MPa – 25 MPa. Arc landslides can occur in soil or soft rock.

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The parameters of the physical properties and mechanical properties used in the design of the general slope are the results of tests in rock mechanics and soil mechanics laboratories. The avalanche criteria used are the criteria Mohr Colum.


From the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that the recommendations for the engineering of the mining slope are 5 meters wide, and 5 meters with a slope angle of 45. General regression geometry of the department a-a’ 51.13 m high and 31 . slope angleafor the slope of the section EE’ with a height of 66.61 m and an angle of inclination of 29a. Possible landslides that may occur in the study area are arc landslides. Factors affecting slope stability are the geometry of the slopes, the level of groundwater.


More research is needed on ramp installation with water control That is, by controlling surface water and controlling groundwater.


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