Classification and distribution of natural resources

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Classification and use of natural resources

There are 5 types of natural resources based on the parts/forms that can be used, they are:

  1. The material, which is the material used. Examples: magnetic minerals, hematite, limonite, siderite, quartz sand (can be melted into iron/steel).
  2. Biological which are the animals (animals) and plants (vegetables) used. Example: Fruit can be consumed directly and meat/eggs must be processed before they can be used.
  3. Energy, i.e., the goods used by man is the energy contained in natural resources. Example: Fuel oil (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, etc.) can be used to drive vehicles. Natural gas can be used for cooking, firewood can be used for cooking etc.
  4. Space and space/the place that humans need in their lives. Area (land) examples can be used for paddy fields, farms, livestock, and others.
  5. Time, as a natural resource, is linked to other natural resources. It is difficult to obtain water samples in the dry season.

Natural resources based on their composition there are two types, namely:

a. SDA can be updated (renewable resources)

SDA can be updated (renewable resources) are natural resources where nature is able to establish new formations in a relatively quick time. Regeneration can be done through reproduction (natural reproduction) and cycles (turnover). Examples: animals, plants, air and water. Below is a discussion of renewable resources.

  1. Agriculture, as an agricultural country, the livelihood of the Indonesian population is directed to agriculture. Agriculture in Indonesia is divided into two parts, namely: first, Folk agriculture. Folk agriculture consists of farming, paddy fields and paddy fields. The characteristics are small capital and simple equipment, carried out by the family, the type of factory is a staple food, the results are to meet their own needs and do not take into account profit and loss. secondly, cultivated agriculture; There are two types of farms, namely small farms (traditionally cultivated farms) and large farms (privately or government-run farms). Efforts to increase agricultural production, namely: a) Agricultural intensification, is an effort to increase agricultural yields by improving farming methods. For example improvement, irrigation, fertilizer, use of premium seeds, use of pest eradication technology, agricultural extension and direction, post-harvest and marketing; b) Agricultural expansion, is an attempt to increase agricultural yields by adding/unlocking new lands. Examples: making intertidal areas as farmland and clearing forests for agriculture; c) Agricultural diversification, is an attempt to increase agricultural yields by adding more crops to the same land. Example: intercropping. d) Agricultural mechanization, is an attempt to increase agricultural yields by seeking to cultivate the land and to cultivate and harvest agricultural products using machinery to improve the quality and speed of production. Examples: tractors replace plows with animals; e) Agricultural rehabilitation, which is an attempt to increase agricultural yields by replacing old, damaged and infested with pests and diseases with new and more productive plants.
  2. Plantation, is the business of growing seasonal crops, such as tobacco, sugar cane, coffee, tea, cocoa, oil palm etc.
  3. Forestry is a large area filled with small and large plants. Forests are affected by climate, soil, plant presence, and management objectives. Forest products are wood, rattan, latex, and bark.
  4. Fisheries There are two types of fisheries in Indonesia, namely marine fisheries and terrestrial fisheries. Sea fishing is the activity of fishing in the sea by fishermen. There are two types of marine fisheries: first In deep sea fisheries (ocean fisheries) fish species are relatively large, such as skipjack and tuna. And the secondly Coastal (shallow sea) fish species are relatively small such as anchovies, pitek, lemuru, mackerel, and cuttlefish. Inland fisheries is the activity of fishing in waters beyond the coast, for example rivers, lakes, lowland swamps, reservoirs, brackish water ponds, and freshwater ponds.
  5. Livestock is the activity of maintaining, raising, processing and using livestock products. Based on the types of livestock, there are 3 types of livestock, namely, large animal husbandry, small animal husbandry and poultry farming. Large animal farms, including cows, horses and buffaloes. Raising small animals, including goats, sheep and rabbits. Farm poultry such as chicken, duck, geese and quail.

Take advantage of the natural plant resources (plants), which are:

  1. As a food source, as a source of carbohydrates (rice, corn, sweet potatoes, etc.), a source of fat (coconut, palm oil, peanuts), a source of protein (soybeans, green beans, and other types of beans), a source of vitamins and minerals (vegetables and fruits) .
  2. As a source of clothing materials, such as cotton, sisal fiber, and fiber Karamay which are used for burlap bags and other packaging.
  3. As a source of essential oils. Such as cloves, lemongrass, tingkawang, eucalyptus, and ylang-ylang.
  4. Ornamental sofas. Many plants are used as ornamentals, such as orchids, roses, anthuriums and other ornamental plants.
  5. Raw materials for furniture, types of wood used in furniture such as teak (often planted) and forest wood (meranti, rasmala, rattan, bamboo, and other types of wood.
  6. Medicinal plants (live pharmacy). This type of plant is generally used for treatment such as ginger, cat whiskers, kankor, turmeric, ginger, red fruits and other types of medicinal plants.
  7. industrial needs. Factories of the industry include tea, coffee, sugar cane, tobacco, pepper, gumbier, and vanilla.

Exploitation of animal natural resources (animals), which are:

  1. As a source of food such as meat, eggs and milk. These foods are high in nutrients.
  2. As a clothing source. Such as animal skin/fur which is widely used for different kinds of needs, for example crocodile skin is used to make bags, snake skin is used for belts, goat skin is used for barrels, etc.
  3. as objects of arts and crafts. Beautifully colored animals such as butterflies can be preserved so that they can be used as decorations, animal horns such as deer/buffalo are used for decoration, and necklaces/pendants made of animal bones/teeth.
  4. The value of human life and culture. Animal activities can inspire humans, such as humans making planes after getting inspiration from flying birds. Making submarines is the result of inspiration from fish swimming in the ocean, etc.
  5. SDA cannot be updated (exhaustible) is a natural resource whose value is fixed because there is no additive or its formation is very slow when compared to human age. Examples: minerals, coal, natural gas, and other fossil natural resources. Natural resources of this type are divided into 2:
  6. Natural resources do not run out quickly, because the consumer value is relatively small. Examples: diamonds, precious stones, gold (precious metals).
  7. Natural resources are rapidly depleting, because their consumer value is relatively high. Examples: Gasoline, natural gas and other fuels.

B. SDA cannot be updated

Non-renewable natural resources include minerals. According to Law No. Law No. 11 of 1976 regarding mining, minerals are divided according to interest into 3, which are:

  • The first group is the group of strategic minerals for defense, state security and ensuring the country’s economy. Examples include coal, petroleum, radioactive materials, copper, aluminum, lead, manganese, iron, nickel, and others.
  • Group B, a group of minerals that are vital because they can meet the needs of so many people. Examples: gold, silver, magnesium, zinc, tungsten, gemstones, mica, asbestos and others.
  • Group C, which is the group of minerals that do not belong to groups A or B. Examples of metals for their own use.

Benefit from mineral commodities as follows.

  1. After processing the crude oil, it can produce Gas Oil (Avegas), Gasoline, Diesel, Diesel, Fuel Oil, Vaseline, Paraffin (for batik and matches industry), and asphalt.
  2. Natural gas is used for domestic and industrial fuels.
  3. Coal is used as an energy source and as a raw material for paints, medicines, perfumes, and explosives.
  4. Clay is used in the manufacture of pottery, tiles and bricks.
  5. Kaolin is used as a basic material for making porcelain.
  6. Limestone is used as a building adhesive, cement-making material, and as a bleaching agent.
  7. Iron sand is used as the basic material for making iron.
  8. Quartz sand is used as the base material for making glass.
  9. Marble is used for floors/walls.
  10. Age stone is used for jewelry.
  11. Aluminum is used in the manufacture of aircraft, cars, machinery, and household appliances.
  12. Tin is used in the manufacture of welding and telephone wires.
  13. Copper is used in wires, bronze, and brass.
  14. Nickel is used as an alloy of iron and steel.

distribution of natural resources

number type of natural resource Distribution area
1 petroleum Cepu, Cirebon, Wonokromo (Java Island), Gerong River, Plaju River (Palembang), Dumai-Jambi (Sumatra Island), Tarakan Island, Bunyu, Kutai, Balikpapan (Kalimantan Island), Sorong (Papua).
2 natural gas Arun and Reno / Aceh (Sumatra Island).
3 coal Ombilin-West Sumatra, Bukit Asam-Palembang, Jambi, Riau, Aceh (Sumatra Island), Kalimantan Island, Papua.
4 Clay Java Island and Sumatra Island.
5 kaolin Around the mountains in Sumatra.
6 limestone Thousand Mountains and Kinding Mountains (Java Island).
7 iron sand Cilacap, Central Java (Java Island).
8 marble Trenggalek, East Java and Bayat, Central Java (Java Island).
9 bauxite Bintan and Riau Islands (Sumatra Island)
10 Leadership Bangka Island, Belitung Island, Cinkepe Island (Sumatra Island)
11 nickel About Lake Matana, Lake Tooti in Kuala, South Sulawesi (Sulawesi Island)
12 copper Tirtomoyo, Wonogiri, Muara Sipeng (Sulawesi) and Tembagapura (Papua)
13 gold and silver Tembagapura, Batu Hijau (NTB), Tasikmalaya, Jampang (West Java), Simau (Bengkulu), Logos (Riau), Meulaboh (NAD).
14 matchsticks Lake Bodas (Garut) and Ding Crater (Central Java)
15th mangan Clariban (Yogyakarta), Doi Island and Karang Nongal (Tasikmalaya).
16 phosphate Cirebon, Mount Ijen and Panyoma (Java Island).
17 Mica Balling Island, Bangai Islands (Maaluku)
18 after, after Murray Mountains (Central Java)
19 Diamond Martapura (South Kalimantan)
20 asbestos Halmahera (Maluko)
21 graphite Lake Payakumbuh Singkarak (West Sumatra)
22 wolfram Singkap Island (Riao)
23 platinum (white gold) Verbeek Mountains (Kalimantan)

map of mining products distribution in indonesia

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