Cytoplasmic Function
Cytoplasmic Function

Cytoplasmic Function

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Cytoplasmic Function_ Cytoplasm is the part of the cell that is enclosed by the cell membrane. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm is the non-nuclear part of the protoplasm.

In the cytoplasm there is a cytoskeleton, various organelles and vesicles, there is also a cytosol in the form of a liquid with organelles floating in it. The cytosol fills the cell space that is not occupied by organelles and vesicles, and is the site of many biochemical reactions and intermediate products for the transfer of material from outside the cell to the organelles or cell nucleus.

This time will be discussed about the function of the cytoplasm, its properties and parts. See the explanation below for more details.

Cytoplasmic Function

  • Storage of various types of chemicals used in cellular metabolic processes. For example enzymes, ions, sugars, fats and proteins.
  • Ensures the exchange of nutrients in the cell.
  • Maintain metabolism to continue to function properly.
  • As a place where all the work of the cell is done.
  • Supports all cell contents. The cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm can help maintain the shape of the cell and keep the organelles in their respective locations.
  • Solvent for all proteins and compounds in cells.
  • As a mediator for the transfer of material from outside the cell to the organelle or cell nucleus.
  • Fills cell spaces that are not occupied by organelles and vesicles.
  • The place where the activity of releasing and arranging substances through chemical reactions takes place. For example, the process of energy generation, anaerobic glycolysis and synthesis of fatty acids, amino acids, proteins and nucleotides.
  • Helps move elements or substances from one part of the cell to another.

Cytoplasmic Characteristics

General characteristics of the cytoplasm:

  • Cytoplasm is a liquid substance that fills the space between the cell membrane and cell organelles.
  • The plasmogel part of the cytoplasm can absorb water and excrete it according to the needs of the cell.
  • The cytoplasm shows different staining properties, the areas stained with basic dyes are the basophilic areas of the cytoplasm and are also called ergatoplasm for this material.
  • A heterogeneous mixture of opaque grains and organic compounds that give it colloidal properties.
  • Cytoplasm is chemically 90% water and 10% including a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds in various proportions.
  • The peripheral zone of the cytoplasm is a thick, jelly-like substance known as a plasmogel.
  • The region surrounding the nuclear zone is thin and liquid and is known as the plasmosol.
  • Physical Properties of Colloidal Cytoplasm. a high percentage of water and particles of various shapes and sizes are suspended in it.
  • The protective cells present in the leaf stomata have this property.
  • The cytoplasm contains proteins, about 20 to 25 percent of which are soluble proteins, including enzymes.
  • Cytoplasm also contains a number of carbohydrates, inorganic salts, lipids, and lipoid substances present in the cytoplasm.
  • The organized fiber system can be observed using special staining techniques.

Parts of Cells Found in the Cytoplasm

There are several important organelles in the cytoplasm that need to be protected, namely the endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, and perixisomes. The following is a description of each of these organelles.

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Seen with a microscope, this part of the cytoplasm is shaped like a wound membrane to produce energy for the cell. Endoplasmic reticulum consists of two types, namely rough endoplasmic reticulum (surface covered with ribosomes) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (not lined with ribosomes).

The endoplasmic reticulum forms a network, sends enzymes along the ER and transports various substances. It is also one of the cell components needed to make phospholipids, cholesterol, and carbohydrates.

The Golgi apparatus is shaped like a convex plate like a sack and is very active in secretory cells such as the pancreas and salivary glands. This organelle is responsible for transporting substances (usually in the form of proteins) produced by the ER to the cell membrane.

This organelle is in the form of granules consisting of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and proteins that function as protein synthesis. Ribosomes can move freely in the cytoplasm or bind to the ER, then divide and form hemoglobin into erythroblasts, which then become erythrocytes.

This part of the cytoplasm is likely the energy factory of the cell, as it is responsible for converting fats into carbohydrates, so that energy is produced in the form of ATP. In the mitochondria there are enzymes that are able to release energy in the form of food during cellular respiration, filter energy from nutrients and provide substances needed by all parts of the cell.

Lysosomes have the shape of an oval or round pouch and are lined with a membrane. Lysosomes contain enzymes that can digest phospholipids, lipids and proteins and act as decomposers of damaged cell organelles.

Peroxisomes are similar in size to lysosomes and usually contain one or more enzymes involved in the oxidation reaction to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). With peroxisomes, hydrogen peroxide is used for other oxidation reactions or is broken down into water and oxygen.

One of the tasks of organelles in the cytoplasm is to oxidize long fatty acids into short fatty acids. After shortening, the fatty acids are transported to the mitochondria for complete oxidation.

In human liver and kidney cells, peroxisomes also detoxify various toxic molecules that enter the blood, such as: Alcohol.

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