Definition of Fermentation – Functions, Benefits, Types, and Examples

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Definition of Fermentation – What is Fermentation? Fermentation is a food processing technique where the main ingredients will be ready-to-eat food using certain microorganisms. For more details, see our discussion of Fermentation Material starting from the Definition of Fermentation, Fermentation Functions, Types of Fermentation, and Examples of Fermentation below.

Definition of Fermentation

Definition of Fermentation

Fermentation is a food processing technique in which the main ingredients will be ready-to-eat food using certain microorganisms. Fermentation can occur due to microbial activity that causes fermentation on suitable organic substrates. The occurrence of this fermentation can cause changes in the properties of foodstuffs as a result of the breakdown of the food ingredients themselves.

In addition, fermentation is a process of producing energy in cells under anaerobic conditions (without oxygen) or releasing energy in the absence of oxygen.

Functions / Benefits of Fermentation

The functions or benefits of fermentation are as follows:

  • Can save food from various food problems; For example, bread cannot expand, but in the presence of yeast it expands.
  • Food diversification, which with the existence of food diversification, food needs will be more fulfilled.
  • By doing fermentation, the storage period will be longer; For example, in the presence of bacteria Rhizopus oligoporus contained in soybean food ingredients, it will produce tempeh that is resistant to rot longer.
  • Minimize losses; Like the tempeh example, with the longer storage period with the fermentation technique, the losses will be reduced.
  • Increase food nutrition; If used properly, the nutrition of the food will be controlled and even add to the nutrition of the food.

Types of Fermentation

The following are the types of fermentation, including;

Alcoholic fermentation is a reaction that converts glucose into ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and carbon dioxide. Organisms that have a role are yeast for making bread, tape and liquor.

Vinegar acid fermentation is an example of fermentation that takes place at aerobic, where this fermentation is carried out by acetic acid bacteria with ethanol as a substrate. The energy produced is 5 times greater than the energy produced by alcoholic fermentation anaerobic, own anaerobic is the process of breaking down glucose that does not require oxygen

Lactic acid fermentation is respiration that occurs in human and animal cells, when oxygen needs are not met due to overwork.

In muscle cells, lactic acid can cause symptoms of fatigue and cramps. Lactate that accumulates for waste products can cause muscle pain and fatigue, but is slowly removed by the blood to the liver to be converted back into pyruvate. Glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid via glycolysis, forming 2 ATP and 2 NADH.

Example of Fermentation

The following are some examples of foods that have undergone a fermentation process, including:

  • Oncom
    Oncom is a fermented product of tofu dregs using the fungus Neurospora Sitophila. This fungus produces several enzymes that make oncom softer and more tender.
  • Yoghurt
    Yogurt is the result of bacterial fermentation of lactic acid, in which the lactose in milk is converted into lactic acid. This condition will make the milk experience curdling, this curd is then collected and packaged in the form of yogurt.
  • Tape
    There are many materials that can be used to make tape, such as black sticky rice, cassava, white sticky rice and many more where these ingredients will undergo fermentation with the help of yeast. The process takes about 2 to 3 days.
  • Tempe
    Tempe is the result of fermentation of soybeans using mushrooms from the genus Rhizoporus. In addition to the high protein content, tempeh is also easily digested by the body. Because during the fermentation process, the Rhizopus fungus has produced protease enzymes and lipase enzymes that break down some food substances into simple compounds that are easily digested by the body.

Thus our discussion of Fermentation Matter. May be useful.

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